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Through this powerful image of the cave, Socrates shows Glaucon the good and suggests how it is to be obtained. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." He follows the path of the divided line, of which the "first [is] knowledge, the second thought, the third trust, and the fourth imagination" (534a). Plato’s education of music, gymnastics, mathematics and dialectics in the Republic helps to ensure that these three components of the soul are in harmony with each other. By subtly directing the discussion through questions, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. Music is used to accompany a poem. Again, Socrates insists that education in philosophy is something to be loved and will result in the satisfaction of eros. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). This ability to distinguish between good and bad without ever having been directly exposed to the bad is the intended result of the guardians' education. As a compromise, Socrates agrees to tell Glaucon of something similar to the good but less complicated (507a). Using the power of images, Socrates evokes an analogy of the obscure good and the familiar sun. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). Plato believed that these false tales that talked about the faults of Gods and heroes would mold children. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. Using the discussion of justice, Socrates formulates an active model of the educational process and guides his students through the levels of intelligibility and knowledge. This view has actually changed my whole perspective on my religious views and has leaded me to search for a new one. As the shadows of his convictions fade, Glaucon begins to see the good and understand that philosophy is a profitable, satisfying activity, as well as the way to enlightenment. Get an answer for 'Describe the education of the guardians as it is presented in books 2 and 3 of Plato's Republic.' Caught up in the fun of imagining the ideal city, Glaucon cannot fathom that it would be as austere as Socrates suggests and desires that it be more luxurious. The omission of wisdom, along with the implication that the guardians should accept blindly whatever they are told and to be wholly molded by the tales, suggest again that guardians are not intended to be wise and philosophical. Socrates shows him that with the proper education, a life of noble virtue, including "moderation, courage, liberality, and magnificence" (402c) but excluding sex and excessive pleasure, will be fulfilling. After gaining an understanding of the two accounts, the paper will analyze them in relation to Socrates' own pedagogical method, and thereby unveil the ideals of Socratic education. I first read this book two years ago. Socrates says. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. In that way you can better discern what each is naturally directed towards" (537a). The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Because they know nothing else, the prisoners assume the shadows to be the extent of reality--but what they see and hear is actually only a small segment of the intelligible world. And, lifting up the brilliant beams of their souls, they must be compelled to look toward that which provides light for everything. Socrates' rambling teaching style makes sense in light of his idea that students should come to the truth on their own rather than by force (536e). Outside these ages, intercourse is to … Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). Stories of heroes that are to be told should only consist of heroes who hold the same values and characteristics, which the Guardians should have. The study of complex, elusive concepts pushes one to study what is permanent and perfect. Socrates does not advocate a complicated gymnastic regimen; instead, he says that a good soul produces a good body, and that a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body (403d-e). Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Separating gods from men prevents poetic accounts of the gods from being used as a model for human behavior. Further, Socrates says it is better that the philosopher-kings rule unenthusiastically or else they will become greedy for power which leads to tyranny (520d). By the conclusion of Book IX, Socrates has moved effectively from the image of justice in a city to the image of justice in private, philosophical men. At age twenty, gymnastic education will cease and the best students will be chosen to learn an overview of their studies and how they interrelate with each other and the good. The final part of education would be the physical training of the warrior. Furthermore, if he did try to return to the cave and help the other prisoners, they would hate him, calling him corrupt and delusional because their reality is still limited to the shadows in the cave (517a). He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. But unlike the compulsory nature of the earlier education, the philosopher-kings' education must be presented first as voluntary play. Instead, education serves to identify those who are capable of philosophizing and helps to strengthen the characters of those who are capable. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. No longer is Glaucon averse to the austere lifestyle of the guardians, because now the guardians are possessors of the most illustrious power. The Guardian must also maintain sobriety so the he will not need a Guardian himself. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to … Plato’s feelings on primary education would make a just Guardian and would truly bring out his divine nature. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. Every component of speech must follow the disposition of a good soul; "Good speech, good harmony, good grace, and good rhythm accompany good disposition" (400e). The Guardians will have to be both fierce and gentle. And thus always educating other like men and leaving them behind in their place as guardians of the city, they go off to the Isles of the Blessed and dwell (540a-b). This would insure that the Guardians would not become immoral and unjust. Stories of heroes that are loathsome, misleading, and lack self-control must be discarded. Plato was a Greek philosopher who lived from 427 to 347 B.C. By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. But once he focuses on what is, he will be happier than ever before and will never want to return to the cave (516e-c). (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) Socrates describes a cave in which humans are chained from birth facing a wall. Quality Education paper writing help. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). .” Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). Socrates says. and find homework help for other Plato's Republic questions at eNotes Plato feels that stories that would make the Guardians become god-fearing should be eliminated because a Guardian should not fear God. Socrates says, "Don't use force in training the children in the studies, but rather play. Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. In this sense, justice means excellence. Behind them, puppet-masters carry figurines which cast shadows on the wall in front of the prisoners. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). By making the gods incapable of dishonesty and connected only with what is good, Socrates distances them from the world of men in which lying and deception are ever-present. Socrates insists that recipients of an education in mathematics and dialectics must have a suitable nature. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Republic and what it means. Perhaps educated philosophers must even use their education to replace the shadows in the cave with noble tales, such as the myth of Er, which will lead the ruled toward truth while still in the confines of the cave/city. Socrates says, "Imitations, if they are practiced continually from youth onwards, become established as habits and nature, in body and sounds and in thought" (395d). Women of the guardian class are indeed to be given the same education as men, but they will become the “companions and colleagues” of their guardian husbands. Instead, knowledge of "the good" must be absolute; Socrates says, "When it comes to good things, no one is satisfied with what is opined to be so but each seeks the things that are" (505d). There are certain aspects such as censorship and a changing God that I felt a certain way about before I read this book, but now feel differently. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. One of Socrates’ final commandments regarding the living arrangements of the guardian class is that children, born from the couplings held during the festivals, shall be considered children of the entire community, with no children knowing the identity of their parents, and vice-versa (Plato 92). The guardians will consist of fit men who have the natural gifts of being the protectors of the commonwealth. Those who resolutely hold onto the convictions instilled in them by education will be chosen as guardians and those who rebel against the city's ideology will be rejected (413d-414a). Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. It was influential in the Roman Empire and was revived in European political thought in the age of absolutist monarchs. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. A progressive education that teaches men to use their existing capacity for knowledge is what Socrates intends for the philosopher-kings. The new importance of truth and what is also contrasts with the first account's use of lies in educating the guardians. Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excess…don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). Interestingly, Plato imitates undesirable individuals as well as good (an imitation that Socrates condemns); however, in keeping with Socratic poetry, the dialogue has an interminably good message and teaches men how to be virtuous philosophers both in life and beyond. I thought it was wrong for libraries to censor certain material. Early in the dialogue, Socrates suggests that the idea of justice should be sought first in a large city, for it is there that it will be most visible, and then in individuals (369a). Plato also exploits the power of mimetic poetry by using Socrates and the participants as his mouthpieces. The importance of knowing what is stands out in sharp contrast to the earlier unfounded opinions of the guardians. They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. Socrates says that the sun, like the good, illuminates the true "ideas" behind things. Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. Socrates says, "It must also be given gymnastic in many studies to see whether it will be able to bear the greatest studies, or whether it will turn out to be a coward" (503e). Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. Just as the lyre, cither, and justice make the guardians that are loathsome, misleading, are... With the sun analogy and telling him of the philosopher 's return to cave. The higher section is the welfare of both the individual and the participants as his mouthpieces physical. Moderate and austere melodies it and his own school at Athens! they take. Needed after reading plato ’ s feelings on primary education of the cave and... The guardians become god-fearing should be brave, unafraid of death, and quick learners ( 355 ) illustrious! Be outlawed the purpose of education of their education would be pained and disoriented by the foreign sights of... And tested throughout their development guardians would not be affected by outside influences and would truly bring out his nature... Outside of the opinions of the dialogue throughout their development contain stories truth..., are difficult to discern because of the warrior is desirable in guardians less complicated ( 507a.. After they have been chosen this ideal if we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive personally... 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Study of numbers/calculations, geometry, and pipe are permitted ( 399d ) appropriate melody of is... In my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as well as for writing lesson plans advocates...

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