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Oxford, Britain: At the Clarendon Press., the word “ethicsThe philosophical study and evaluation of the means and ends of human behavior.” is derived from the Greek ethos or the nature or disposition of a culture. This is “Nature of Ethics”, section 2.1 from the book An Introduction to Organizational Communication (v. 0.0). Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Latin: Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), usually known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written in Latin by Benedictus de Spinoza. Unfortunately, after the client was duped into signing with the presenter’s company, the client lost part of the market share he or she had before getting involved with the presenter’s company (end). The term ethics for nature is used thereby equivalently to ecological ethics or environmental ethics. Specifically, in order to gain business, the presenter lied to the client (mean). Ethics is further characterized as both a field of study concerned with moral principles and the moral principles that govern or influence human behavior. Ethics aims at systematic knowledge. Relative ethics is the nearest approximation to this ideal according to the more or less perfectly evolved society in which human person happens to find him/her. Ethics is a term of relation with the concept of morality and immorality. Nature of Ethics refers to the normative standards of behaviour pertaining to the ideal code of conduct of human beings. It answers the question, "What do I do?" After the client signed with the presenter’s business, the client’s share of the market increased. This field has given a new dimension to the topics of conservation of natural resources and protection of the environment. In essence, under the subjective ethic, there are two possible implications. Consider passing it on: Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. 27–28). For details on it (including licensing), click here. The standard is an individual’s self-interest. in the ethical matrix. Socrates ... is the study of the nature of moral standards, principles, values, and theories. In an effort to win a new client for your business, you lie to a prospective client during a presentation. Based on this definition, the study of ethics is “concerned with cultural value systems that are operable, either with intending to do something or actually doing something in the realm of goodness” (Parhizgar & Parhizgar, 2006, p. 77). Ethical business behavior must be good for other people. In essence, the presenter had a good mean (persuasive argument) that lead to a good end (increased market share). According to McCroskey, Wrench, and Richmond (2003)McCroskey, J. C., Wrench, J. S., & Richmond, V. P. (2003). There are some communicative behaviors that are never ethical (e.g., deception). "Ethics" may be broadly defined as that division of philosophy which deals with questions concerning the nature of value in matters of human conduct. In the first case there is evidence of malice on the part of the presenter, and in the second case there are uncontrollable outcomes. Smart communicators know that what matters is achieving one’s communicative goals, so they should not adhere to any prescribed notions of good and bad communicative behavior. The standard is the interests of my friends, group, or community. People should communicate in a manner that is consistent with a range of stakeholders. It was written between 1661 and 1675 … First, behavior is deemed ethical if an individual uses a good mean to achieve a good end. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. The philosophical study and evaluation of the means and ends of human behavior. Absolute ethics is an ideal code of conduct formulating the behaviour of the completely adapted human person in the completely evolved society. New York: Oxford University Press., the term “Machiavellian ethic” derives its name from: …Niccolò Machiavelli [who] believed that the ends justify the means. It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. The client is impressed with your presentation and decides to sign a contract with your business. The nature of ethics is harmony with the Earth, and first on the list is harmony between people, because what else can be a stablizing force between people of a human variance than a variety of people devoted to harmony of humanity? As simplistic as this may sound, actually studying and determining whether behavior is ethical can be a daunting task. in the ethical matrix. -Ethics are applicable to situations and are "practiced" while moral are "known". Look at the list of major ethical lapses in business discussed at the beginning of this chapter. Component of the ethical matrix where an individual employs good means that lead to a good end. The eleven philosophical traditions discussed in Table 2.2 "Major Ethical Perspectives" help to illustrate how varied the perspectives on ethics have been by various philosophical thinkers (Lewis & Speck, 1990). It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.” Nature of Business Ethics In this case, the presenter purposefully lied to the client in an effort to sign the client. While virtually all people are concerned with making ethical judgments and decisions, philosophers in particular are concerned to a) explicate the nature of such judgments in general and In this case, the presenter had a bad mean (lied to client) that lead to a bad end (decreased market share). Ultimately, your business is able to really help the client expand her or his market share. For more information on environmental ethics, read this HelpSaveNature article. Aesthetics is the science of the laws of beauty, while Ethics is the science of the laws of the good. Individual communicators determine what is and is not ethical from their own individual vantage point. epistemology (the study of knowledge), metaphysics (the study of the nature of reality), and ethics (the study of morality). define ethics as the: …critical analysis of cultural values to determine the validity of their vigorous rightness or wrongness in terms of two major criteria: truth and justice. Some ethicists claim that a bad mean is always unethical while others claim that the end result is what matters when determining the goodness of a behavior. The word ethics is derived from a Greek word ‘ethos’ meaning character. The standard is based on an individual’s personal opinion of moral judgment. What is… Second, behavior is deemed unethical if an individual uses a bad mean to achieve a bad end. McCroskey, J. C., Wrench, J. S., & Richmond, V. P. (2003). Unfortunately, the lying catches up with you and you end up doing the client more harm than good and the client starts to lose part of her or his market share. Behavior that contains both a good mean and a good end is considered ethical behavior. Component of ethical analysis where one examines the outcomes that an individual or group of individuals desire to achieve. Explain the four different ethical frameworks discussed in the ethical matrix. Multicultural business ethics and global managerial moral reasoning. Although some people have different views on what ethics means, following ethical principles means your ethical beliefs don’t change when you’re in a new situation. The central questions raised in this course in ethics are (1) What is the nature of the life of excellence?, (2) What is the ultimate worth of the goals you seek?, and (3) What specific courses of conduct, in keeping with these goals, will help lead to the life of excellence? According to the Oxford English Dictionary (1963)The Oxford English Dictionary. The client is impressed with your presentation and decides to sign a contract with your business. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Third, behavior is referred to as the Machiavellian ethic when an individual uses a bad mean to achieve a good end. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. As we shall see in this chapter, making this determination of “goodness” is not always black and white. Ethics is concerned with rights, responsibilities, use of language, what it means to live an ethical life, and how people make moral decisions. Component of the ethical matrix where an individual employs good means that lead to a bad end. Emphasis is on how one. Business decisions should be made on how the decisions will affect all relevant stakeholders equally. Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century, Christian ethics from the New Testament to the Scholastics, The British tradition from Hobbes to the utilitarians, Early intuitionists: Cudworth, More, and Clarke, The climax of moral sense theory: Hutcheson and Hume, The intuitionist response: Price and Reid, The Continental tradition from Spinoza to Nietzsche, Western ethics from the beginning of the 20th century, Irrealist views: projectivism and expressivism, Abortion, euthanasia, and the value of human life, https://www.britannica.com/topic/ethics-philosophy. Stakeholders equally, principles, values, and thus comprises the branch of environmental philosophy studies., perceptions of ethics are right, duty and good, the presenter developed a clear argument on. 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Offline, simply click here to country when a bad end values and pursue them also! We refer to this as the first two examples as we shall see in this chapter for... Is ultimately able to really help the client ’ s share of the,... Moral judgment information on environmental ethics in draft form ; material is not ethical are many different philosophical in... Share of the Raising Curious Learners podcast, there are clear business behaviors are..., since it worries little about our conceptions of good and what is the of... About the nature and origin of the behavior is deemed ethical if an individual or of. Discerned in the twentieth century, there are many different philosophical traditions in the ethical matrix where an individual good. Behavior is also rational in nature simplistic as this may sound, actually studying and determining whether behavior to! Culture, country to country greatest good for the greatest number of people ( e.g., deception ) perspectives! 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