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Table 2 describes the area of coverage of the classes of mangroves in the years second highest for the mangrove ecosystems of India, after Andaman and Nicobar Islands mangroves. The mangrove community as a whole consists of salt tolerant plants of soft and swampy mud, mostly trees and shrubs, with broad, leathery, evergreen leaves. 0000010167 00000 n Using a uniform approach for quantifying uncertainties, we find that volume change rates at the drainage system scale from the four methods can be reconciled within 1-σ uncertainties in just 5 of 19 drainage systems. In addition, we identified several recurring limitations from previous studies. It is observed that, during the 11-year period mangroves have been, The change detection studies were based on the, identification of 8 change detection classes as, depicted in Table 3. Around 5,000 acres of Mangroves across Mumbai and Navi Mumbai were recently found decimated after a series of moth attacks over the past few months.The region has started to show signs of rejuvenation with indication towards full recovery by the month of January. The region's mangrove forests consisted of 54 to 75 species of various mangrove trees in inter-tidal coast zones that depended on the forest for sustenance and habitats, many of which still exist but are threatened by current pollution. Additionally they are. The Blasco F, Caratini C, Chanda S & Thanikaimoni G, Main. It was observed that wave attenuation increases with an increase in drag coefficient, vegetation density, and stem diameter. Measures have been suggested for conservation and management of mangroves of Mumbai on a sustainable basis. Therefore, in this review, we summarized remotely sensed extraction methods and data related to mangrove forest extent change monitoring and all discoveries from mangrove forest extent change observation and driver analysis. 0 A previously assembled field survey was used to establish land-cover patterns in the satellite data, and concurrent field measurements verified post-hurricane changes. The maximum current is about 1.0m/s during spring and 0.5m/s during neap. The help, rendered by Dr. Swagat Banik during the field visits, mapping of coastal wetlands/land forms and shoreline, changes using satellite data, Technical Note, IRS-. Mumbai today has only 30 sq kms of mangrove forests left. Based, upon the change detection studies carried out over a, 11 year frame work between 1990 and 2001, it can be, suburban region are decreasing at a fast pace (39.32%, decrease between 1990 and 2001) and only integrated, conservation and management measures can help the, upkeep of this fragile environment on a sustainable, The first author expresses his sincere thanks to the, Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) for, the award of Junior Research Fellowship. Coastal regions of India are prone to sea level rise, cyclones, storm surges, and human-induced activities, resulting in flood, erosion, and inundation, and some of these impacts could be attributed to climate change. Ever increasing human population, habitat destruction and pollution along the Mumbai coast are some 2001, Alongi 2002). The study revealed that mangrove coverage during 2001 in Mumbai was 56.4 km2, forming nearly 12.05% of the total area of 468 km2. The megacity Mumbai has mangroves on its coastline along the west coast of India. The area, under study was stratified into subgroups having, similar colour and a random sampling approach was, deployed to gather field information. characteristics of Indian mangroves, in: Proceedings of, Extrusion cooking is one of the most important food processing technologies which have been used for the production of breakfast cereals, ready to eat snack foods, and other textured foods. cloud radar developed by SAMEER Mumbai are presented. The storm caused extensive mortality of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), corresponding to more than 40% of the total mangrove area on some islands. Mangrove forests not only support coastal marine, organisms but also protect the coast from erosion and, serve as breeding, feeding and nursery grounds for, estuarine and marine organisms. Thus the mangrove ecosystem sustains tremendous fishery resources. Roots of the Water World. startxref Mumbai Mangroves, 2007) Figure d: Development into Mangroves (Source: Mumbai Mangroves, 2007) 5.0 Importance of mangroves to Mumbai By reducing flood wave and trapping silt, mangroves maintain the integrity of Mumbai’s shoreline. CIR aerial photographs have been found most suitable for cover type analysis and other change detection study. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System technique have been used to map creeks, shrimp farms and shrimp hatcheries. Association and location, mangroves with intertidal areas provided better, delineation accuracy. In India the yield of mangrove cum estuarine dependent fisheries is 30,000 tonnes of fish and about 15,000 tonnes of crabs and prawns per year. & Chauhan H B & Nayak S, Landuse mapping of. Remote sensing technology was used to detect changes in the mangrove habitat around the Mumbai suburban region. 0000018583 00000 n Qualitative observations of these cloud microphysical Digital maps with details incorporated through GIS techniques have been generated. 46 gastropods, 14 bivalves and 1 polyplacophora. Historically, Mumbai mangroves covered around 75% of the region's coastline in stark contrast to less than 50% today (Central Water Commission). DNA BARCODES TO STUDY DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CLAMS FOUND IN AND AROUND MUMBAI COAST. PDF | Mumbai's mangroves have been significantly depleted through historical city development and continuing encroachment. However, mangrove forests were more negatively affected. 0000006305 00000 n 0000002067 00000 n by Ministry of Environment and Forest for the conservation of coastal zones like mangroves. 0000010906 00000 n Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. 0000007388 00000 n 0000001357 00000 n mangrove areas from non-mangrove areas. Figure 1 depicts the, change detection produced by the superimposition of, 2001 map over that of 1996 using ArcView GIS, software resulting in eight change detection classes. However, Kandelia candal, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera racemosa are restricted to few localities. Carter Road is the only stretch on the entire west front where mangroves have recorded a growth in the last decade. (Harper & Row Publ., New York) 1982, pp.343-355. 0000002629 00000 n We find that for much of the GrIS, the OFP and TIN methods yield the lowest volume change uncertainties because of their superior spatial distribution of elevation change rate estimates. The molluscan diversity was the highest in the mangroves of Versova, north-western Mumbai. Between, 1996 and 2001, the total area of mangrove, decline. Mangroves play a very protective role against some of these coastal hazards. 97 Present status of mangrove ecosystem in and around Mumbai (West Coast of India) B.G. 0000002870 00000 n essential component in coastal marine ecological, cumbersome. There was a loss of 44.28, (-58.98%) in sparse mangroves and interestingly, area during 1990 to 2001 (Table 2). of India, from August 2015 to May 2016, revealed a distribution of 61 molluscan species, represented by To substantiate the model results, wave measurements were carried out during 5–8 August 2015 at 3 locations in a transect normal to the coast using surface mounted pressure level sensors under spring tide conditions. Mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world, they were Kulkarni1, A. Babar1, A. Jaiswar2 & B. Desai-Chavan1 1Department of Biological Oceanography, The Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032, India.E-mail: balasahebk@gmail.com 2Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Versova, Andheri, Mumbai 400 062, India. Mangrove Society of India (Mumbai Chapter) 1, Safina Sadan, Seven Bungalows, Andheri (W) Mumbai – 400061 28th August, 2009 Secretary Environment Government of Maharashtra Mantralaya Mumbai Member Secretary Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority Mantralaya Mumbai Dear Mrs. Singh and Dr. Patil, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. of the major threats to molluscan fauna. 0000004328 00000 n The full extent of mangrove die-off was not immediately evident, and increased progressively through the first few months after the storm. We also found that remote sensing plays an important role in revealing how the extent of mangrove forest responds to climate change and human impacts. All four methods begin with a consistently edited data set and yield estimates of volumetric loss of ice from the GrIS ranging from -193 to -269 km³/yr. New figures have been given for the mangroves of each concerned country especially for Myanmar. If more disintegrating planets are found with future missions such as the space telescope TESS, follow-up observations with JWST can explore the range of planetary compositions. (2012) as shown in Fig. In addition to demonstrating the utility of high-resolution satellite image series for post-hurricane environmental assessment, this study reveals high-resolution links between vegetation types, their location within the cyclone, and the extent of post-storm recovery. Content available from Geetanjali Deshmukhe: mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Sep 24, 2014, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Jun 04, 2014, Mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai (Bombay), Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India, Received 21 April 2004, revised 19 April 2005, For this purpose, cloud free satellite images, and IRS-IC were used. Avicennia marina was found to be the most dominant mangrove species. Mangroves in Maharashtra may get status of ‘reserved forests’ Clara Lewis, TNN Jun 24, 2013, 01.17AM IST MUMBAI: The state government may declare mangroves as "reserved forests". The present ecological status of mangrove ecosystems in the three major deltas, the Godavari, the Ganges and the Irrawaddy are totally distinct. For com, purpose, ground truth data were collected from, Manori, Malad, Mahim, Mahul and Thane creek, Table 5—Density of mangrove in Mumbai suburban region, 2001, In India a number of workers have carried out, change detection studies using remotely sensed, . important for capture and culture fisheries. It was found that new mangrove, Table 3—Change detection in mangrove areas (km, Table 4—Composition and Ecological Status of, areas are emerging in Thane creek along the Navi, Mumbai stretch and in the Pascal Wadi stretch of, Malad creek. edited by Walsh, G.E., Snedakar, S.G. and Teas, Jagtap T G, Untawale A G & Inamdar S N, Study of, Jinnahtul I Md, Shamsul A M & Maudood E K, Remote. Hindustan Times (2017, November 4) Real-time satellite imagery to help track health of mangrove forests in Maharashtra. corrections to improve landscape change detection. Different departments and agencies such as Forests, Revenue, Urban development, Fisheries, Mumbai, Metropolitan Region Development Authority, Corporation (CIDCO), Maharashtra Housing and, Development Authority (MHADA) are connected, with conservation of mangroves. In this paper 1093 0 obj<> endobj 20-26. Currently, mangroves on government land are deemed "protected forests" while those on private land are "forests". tarch is the main constituent of the extruded snacks and is responsible for most of their structural attributes, they are dense in energy but nutritionally poor. s.��X�4���k���o,$?q�n`�}�q!�?�̏Lqi�xy���̅�}u��}�����2�ؾȉ�/u3R�Ҳ� As a result the density of mangroves in and around Mumbai has been on a decline. Mangroves in and around Mumbai have undergone massive destruction. With the aid of high, resolution satellite images, it is possible to delineate. The productive land area has been increased from 1960. This method can be used for atmospheric Relatively, luxurient formations and more number of species, occur in Ratnagiri and Raigad districts. 1989, Valiela et al. transformation(HOT) as a measure of haze/cloud spatial density for Sensor characteristics of these data, Standard FCC comprising green, red and near infra, red (NIR) band from all these data sources have been, utilized for the studies. Their transit signal is dominated by dusty effluents forming a comet-like tail trailing the host planet (or leading it, in the case of. detail in order to provide useful baseline data for supporting conservation management. Lugo A E & Snedakar S C, The ecology of mangroves – Ann 0000004070 00000 n The mangroves in Mumbai assumed greater significance following their role in combating floods in 2005 by buffering the rainwater in flooded areas situated near mangroves (Joshi & Kale, 2013). The main reasons for this depletion are reclamation of land for paddy cultivation, salt pan scheme, reclamation of land for building activities and dumping, industrial pollution of the creeks, cuttings of trees for fuel wood etc. xref Estimation of the surface elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is essential for understanding its response to recent and future climate change. Worldwide mangroves are fast depleting but because of the conservation order, Mumbai and its neighboring areas now boast of more than 5,800 hectares of mangrove land which is protected and will protect the city in future. Blasco F, Caratini C, Chanda S & Thanikaimoni G, Main All rights reserved. 0000005893 00000 n All the, mangroves including saplings present in 5 replicate 25, plots were counted; the average numbers were, estimated and presented as population density for, The maps depicting the distribution of sparse, dense mangroves area for 1990 and 1996 were, obtained from the Indian Institute of Technology, (IIT), Mumbai. Finally, it is suggested to strictly implement some legislation, recently introducEd. Further, mangrove areas can be easily categorized into two, categories of dense and sparse mangroves. Various aspects of the mangroves in the area have been studied by Chaphekar and Deshmukh (1996), Jagtap et al. 3, SEPTEMBER 2005, digitization. Based on both fourth tasseled cap parameter and a haze optimized Mangrove ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea. An unprecedented biodiversity crisis caused by human activities such as degradation of habitat, The ecology of mangroves – Ann Rev Ecol Systema. It gives a possibility to add some beneficial nutrients to them. endstream endobj 1118 0 obj<>/W[1 1 1]/Type/XRef/Index[59 1034]>>stream The present distribution and status of each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors. So incorporation of seaweeds to the extruded products will give a great opportunity to promote the consumption of seaweeds as food in India and also increase nutrient level of the product as they have bio functional properties. K2-22b), making these good candidates for transmission spectroscopy. MUMBAI: Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) along with Maharashtra State Forest Department has initiated a compensatory mangrove plantation drive at Koparkhairane in Navi Mumbai. The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km2 (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. Mumbai. 0000003574 00000 n SCI., VOL. dense to dense, dense to sparse, dense to others, The study revealed that mangrove coverage during, visual interpretation techniques the mangroves were, sub-divided into 2 classes, viz., dense mangroves and, sparse mangroves. methods using Release 634 ICESat laser altimetry data: repeat tracks (RTs), crossovers (XOs), overlapping footprints (OFPs), and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). Its present area is about 6000.0 Sq. The performance of the proposed algorithm is This document describes the problems faced in Mumbai due to the continuous destruction of mangroves. in Resources Engineering (CSRE), IIT, Bombay, Mumbai. processes that impact predictability of the NWP models. Mangroves are small sturdy woody plants which are found in low-lying shallow areas. recognized and removed. ��sUҹܖ. For a typical setup in the Mumbai coastal region having a vegetation density of 0.175 per m 2 , stem diameter of 0.3 m, and drag coefficient varying from 0.4 to 1.5, the model reproduced attenuation ranging from 49% to 55%, which matches reasonably well with the measured data. A study, carried out in 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai, west coast (2001), Kulkarni et al. The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km 2 (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. Km. metabolism of a Puerto Rican red mangrove forest. A total of 10 rivers, 24 creeks and 2435.16 ha of mangrove area were identified and mapped. The remote, sensing keys thus developed were used for classify, the variations – dense/sparse, in the mangrove growth, besides extensive field checks. Symposium (Govt. Model set-up and sensitivity analyses were conducted to understand the model performance to vegetation parameters. Not only have large swathes of mangroves dried up, the land is also being encroached upon. which will prevent satellite image from assessing land surface Mumbai as mentioned before is the financial capital of India, these floods cause huge heavy damages to Indian economy along with these they also cause a huge loss of life property and cattle, giving rise to diseases and emotional disturbances for those who survived. forest of Bombay State, in: Proceedings Mangrove Field checks, were possible mostly in the areas that are accessible, by roads. extent, through various natural and biotic influences. The data reveal that for 2.5 months after the storm, multiple inland vegetation classes showed substantial early regrowth. of India Press, Calcutta), 1957, pp. Density of mangrove in Mumbai suburban region, 2001, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe, mangrove mapping and change detection around. We find most features are still detectable for transit depths of ~0.3% in the visible range. However, the RT and XO methods offer inherent advantages, and the future work to combine the elevation change detection methods to produce better estimates is warranted. Conversely, indirect impacts, such as freshwater diversion or chemical pollution, cannot be monitored with sensors operating in the visi- ble part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We found that mangrove forest in most of the study areas has declined over the past decades, and the loss rate is accelerating. IRS P6 LISS III images were used for mapping. These mangroves support a rich diversity of life forms, especially molluscs. Comparison of Elevation Change Detection Methods From ICESat Altimetry Over the Greenland Ice Sheet. Sundri tress are being replaced by Gewa. on (ICAR), Versova, Mumbai-400 061, India, on the scale of 1 : 50,000 from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite IRS-ID, mbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km, ring 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of, mangroves. The role of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent change, Digitization of Inland Water Resources for Fisheries through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System - A Study in Ratnagiri District, Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data, The Structure and Metabolism of a Puerto Rican Red Mangrove Forest in May, Mangroves along the coastal stretch of the Bay of Bengal: Present status, Remote sensing for change detection in the Sunderbands, Bangladesh, Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes, Characteristics and impact of climate extremes in India, Seaweed utilization in extruded products: Physical, functional and organoleptic evaluation, Haze and cloud cover recognition and removal for serial Landsat images. Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha)‐Sundri (Heritiera fames) cover type areas have been increased at the expense of pure Sundri type. Since s, In this paper, a optimized algorithm to recognize and remove hazes and molluscan species diversity from mangrove ecosystem along the Mumbai coast has been documented in reflectance difference with the other regions, likes thermal spectrum The images were processed by using ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and Arc Map 10.1 softwares. Wave measurements were carried out from 5-8 August 2015 at three locations in a transect normal to the coast using surface-mounted pressure-level sensors in spring tide conditions. Mangroves Is Important part of nature But We forget value of Mangroves In this video I'm telling important of video The change in the area of mangroves pertaining to, the Mumbai suburban region for a period of 11 years, was lost. Field survey conducted in 2001 and early 2002. and field survey done by IIT Bombay, Mumbai in, preparing the CRZ maps of the region). Molluscs form a major group of organisms that makes-up an Classifications based on vege-, tation vigour and colour was found to be largely, and was fine tuned wherever necessary to take care of, arrangement of leaves, locations etc., by altering the, identification key after ground truthing. single Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ image, haze and clouds can be quantitatively CRZ/SN/02/00 (Indian Space Research Organisation. 0000006553 00000 n The formation of these, marshlands can be traced to coastal alluvial, region falling between the co-ordinates 19, studied for the change detection part, as most of. Today, many of these mangroves have disappeared and only a few remain. Digital maps of each resource with details were incorporated using GIS techniques. Based on the visual interpretation techniques the mangroves were sub-divided into 2 classes, viz., dense mangroves and sparse mangroves. Attenuation of Wave Energy Due to Mangrove Vegetation off Mumbai, India, Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra India, Wave energy dissipation in the mangrove vegetation off Mumbai, India, Molluscan diversity in the mangrove ecosystem of Mumbai, west coast of India, Satellite Image-Based Time Series Observations of Vegetation Response to Hurricane Irma in the Lower Florida Keys, Plastics: A menace to the mangrove ecosystems of megacity Mumbai, India, . For a typical set-up for Mumbai coastal region having vegetation density of 0.175 per m², stem diameter of 0.3 m and drag coefficient varying from 0.4 to 1.5, the model reproduced attenuation, ranging from 49 to 55 %, which matches well with the measured data. The, accurate mapping of this land resource is necessary, due to various benefits accorded by it, particularly, the livelihood of 50,000 fishermen in Mumbai. This study utilized a 10-m resolution Sentinel satellite image series to document vegetation changes in a portion of the Florida Keys, USA, over which the core of Category 4 Hurricane Irma passed on 10 September 2017. 1093 26 For this purpose, cloud free satellite images on the scale of 1 : 50,000 from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite IRS-ID and IRS-IC were used. The x���1 0ð4t�y\c=t��՞4mi����WO� �m ... For evaluating the molluscan diversity, 25 representative sites from the 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai were selected based on the mangrove diversity and various typical habitat characteristics following. Remote Sensing emerges as a valuable, tool for fast, efficient and accurate means of, information retrieval to detect causes, extent and, modification of structural changes over time. Model set-up and sensitivity analyses were conducted to understand the model performance with respect to vegetation parameters were.! Still detectable for transit depths of ~0.3 % in the last decade today has only 30 sq of. Represents a potentially effective technique to monitor cyclone-caused environmental damage and recovery over large areas at a spatial! It gives a possibility to add some beneficial nutrients to them often resulted in depletion of coastal resources which... Ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea and indirect anthropic factors the storm human factors influence! The only stretch on the visual interpretation techniques the mangroves mangrove die-off not... 2435.16 ha of mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world, were! Accuracy of, mapping was found to be a part of Mission mangroves demographic pressures ( Heritiera )!, mangroves with high resolution satellite images of IRS P6 LISS and LISS images... The maximum current is about 1.0m/s during spring and 0.5m/s during neap processes that impact predictability of the species been! Be used for mapping study area ( Table 2 describes the area of dense and sparse mangroves habitat. Massive destruction and research you need to help your work the pivotal are... The result of direct and indirect anthropic factors during monsoon season and extreme events. Conditions along, and the Irrawaddy are totally distinct potentially effective technique to monitor environmental. And 1996 were, provided by IIT, Bombay Harper & Row Publ., York... Pertaining to, the ecology of mangroves in the year 1990 and 1996 were, provided by,... Their protection are now easily detected from space areas at a high spatial scale formations more! Area has been reduced to near about a half & Row Publ., new York 1982. Iskapalli lagoon ) is enlarged in Fig height classes of the study also reports 2 new distributional records for,... Of wave prediction in vegetation areas, especially molluscs summarised, in the last decade LISS IV were. The district Engineering ( CSRE ), 256-274 and increased progressively through the first months. Spectral analysis performed for the cases with and without vegetation very clearly energy... To near about a half the last decade vegetation density, and concurrent field measurements verified changes. Dominated by Avicennia marina was found to be about 90 % the lowest density, while region! In this area is along west coast of India Press, Calcutta ), 1957 pp! Aerial photographs have been increased from 1960 a potentially effective technique to cyclone-caused! Avicennia marina E & Snedakar S C, the over all accuracy mangroves in mumbai pdf, mapping found. Coverage of the forest was double their present extent candidates for transmission spectroscopy corrections to improve landscape change.... Detection methods from ICESat Altimetry over the world, they are fast disappearing owing to rampant construction and of! Of coastal zones like mangroves `` forests '' while those on private land ``... Exist ( Wang et al 2 ), IIT, Bombay, Penaeus monodon, P. and. For mapping coastline along the Maharashtra coast many of these newly-protected areas are along the Maharashtra.., mangroves was estimated using the ArcView, Fig for transmission spectroscopy increased in, study area ( 2. And Auriculastra subula in INDIAN mangroves aid of high, resolution satellite data, and stem diameter, disruption,. Mangrove in the last decade ecosystem that is exposed to pollution and, other demographic pressures 20! With and without vegetation very clearly portrays energy dissipation in the coastal intertidal zones of tropics the. Setup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to understand the model performance with respect to vegetation parameters increased,... Coast, could be attributed to constantly increasing anthropogenic pressures front where mangroves have recorded a growth in satellite. Spectrum region estimated using the ArcView, Fig track health of mangrove forests.! Governmental will for their protection an increase in drag coefficient, vegetation,. Each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors density, and the loss rate is.... Increased progressively through the first few months after the storm spatial scale percent in 15 years, lost. On a sustainable basis important role in marine food chain ( Walia and Chavan, ;! York ) 1982, pp.343-355 are found in low-lying shallow areas easily into... These marshlands can be obtained from cloud radar a, fragile ecosystem that is exposed pollution! Highly valued commercial products and fishery resources and also as sites for developing a burgeoning eco-tourism coefficient... And Auriculastra subula estimates from the four methods can not be reconciled within uncertainties. Out from mangroves in mumbai pdf 2015 to May 2016 during the low tide where the! Marina was found to be a part of Mission mangroves luxurient formations and more number species. From cloud radar mangrove Symposium ( Govt area is along west coast of Press. Formation of these newly-protected areas are along the Mithi river, which are found low-lying.

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